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Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with a monarch as the head of state and a prime minister as the head of government. The country is divided into 10 provinces and 3 territories, each with their own government, but the federal government has authority over certain areas, such as defense, foreign relations, and banking. The Parliament of Canada, located in Ottawa, is made up of the Senate and the House of Commons. Members of the House of Commons are elected by citizens in each riding, or electoral district, and the leader of the party with the most seats in the House of Commons becomes the prime minister. The Senate is made up of appointed members, currently chosen by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister.

The political landscape in Canada is dominated by two main parties: the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party. The Liberal Party, led by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, is considered center-left, while the Conservative Party, led by Erin O’Toole, is considered center-right. The New Democratic Party (NDP) led by Jagmeet Singh, is a social democratic party. The Bloc Quebecois is a regional party that focuses on Quebec’s interests and is led by Yves-Francois Blanchet. The Green Party, led by Annamie Paul, also has representation in the House of Commons.

In recent years, Canada’s political landscape has been marked by several key issues, including climate change, immigration and refugee policy, and relations with the United States. The country has also been working to address concerns about Indigenous rights and reconciliation.

In October 2019, Canada held federal elections and the Liberal Party led by Justin Trudeau won the most seats, but lost the majority. This resulted in a minority government, which means that the party will need the support of other parties to pass legislation. The Conservative Party had the second-most seats, followed by the Bloc Quebecois and the New Democratic Party. The Green Party also won a seat in the House of Commons.

In 2021, the liberal Party led by Justin Trudeau won again the most seats, but this time with a comfortable majority. He was sworn in as the prime minister for a second time, and continued his governance.

The current political issues in Canada include the handling of COVID-19 pandemic and the economic recovery, climate change and environmental policies, immigration, and relations with the United States and other international actors.